|Mode of Governance||market-making||market-correcting|
|Hierarchical Direction||Monetary policy; Competition policy (merger and state aid control);||Gender Equality (TEC)|
|Joint Decisions (Community Method)||Common Market Directives (e.g. Services Directive) Social protection for mobile workers who cross national borders||Gender Equality (Guidelines) Labour legislation, conditions and protection (Incl. social partnership guidelines) European Social Fund|
|Intergovernmental Negotiations (governments remain in control of the decision)||Labour Market Policies* (Broad Economic Policy Guidelines; European Employment Strategy)||Social security* and social inclusion* (Open Method of Coordination)|
|Mutual adjustment (Competition through non-decisions)||Wages; Corporate Taxes||Product regulation|
* Effect is less clear
Source: ICTWSS: Database on Institutional Characteristics of Trade Unions, Wage Setting, State Intervention and Social Pacts in 34 countries between1960 and 2007. http://www.uva-aias.net/207 Greece & Hungary: 2005; Slovenia: 2003.
Data: Armingeon et al. (2008): Comparative Political Data Set III 1990-2006