List of Figures and Tables

 

Table 1: Policy frames related to childcare provision in the EU

Frames Gender inequality - F1 Decreasing economic competitiveness and welfare state reform - F2 Demography (fertility, greying population) - F3
Normative dimension (values, moral beliefs) -What sort of values underlie one's perception of social reality? Human rights, equality among people regardless of gender, right to personal growth and self-improvement, equal rights and responsibilities within the family, sharing Economic efficiency and growth, material wellbeing, efficient collective provision of welfare. Social reproduction and cohesion, economic efficiency
Constitutive dimension (need for public intervention) - What is the problem? Women are oppressed, genders are unequal, unpaid work is not considered valuable and is hardly ever equally shared between the sexes Economic growth is slow, the relative (global) competitive position of Europe is not strong enough. The Welfare state needs restructuring in direction of greater efficiency. Demographic crisis (low number of births, greying population, pension gap, shrinking labour force)
Cognitive dimension (narrative about the phenomenon and cause effect relations) - what has led to the problem? Women are restricted to activities within the private sphere, do not have access to paid work, nor to active participation in public life, which leads to their dependence, lack of dignity and equality. Women live in an androcentric (man-made and man-focused) world, where unpaid work is not valued. Women are not sufficiently economically active. Women's labour market non-participation represents untapped potential. The more women enter the labour market, the greater the labour force, the larger the GDP, the higher the economic growth and competitiveness. Women bare less children later in their lives (if at all) because of individualisation processes, career demands, economic difficulties. The state does not support sufficiently families to have as many children as they would ideally want.
Policy dimension (public actions) - what can be done about it? Women's economic independence could be fostered through provision of accessible and affordable childcare facilities. Provision of accessible and economically affordable childcare facilities. Provision of accessible and economically affordable childcare facilities.

 

Table 2: Steps in the dataset formation

Search term No of hits Relevant hits New hits
EES acquis:
All EES guidelines
11 11 11
All EES implementation recommendations 7 7 7
Presidency Conclusions 46 41 41
Search terms:
"child-care' and "child care"
44 15 13
"childcare" 99 25 9
"child-minding" 9 3 2
"crèche" 7 0 0
"daycare" 1 0 0
"child" AND "rear" 21 0 0
"child" AND "rearing" 14 0 0

 

Table 3: Frequency distribution of the childcare related policy frames in the Presidency Conclusions from 1997 to 2008

Month/Year Eur. Council of: Nr of references to childcare
  Total F1 F2 F3
Jun-97 Amsterdam 0      
Nov-97 Lux_Empl 1   1  
Dec-97 Lux 0      
Jun-98 Cardiff 1 1    
Dez-98 Vienna 0      
Mar-99 Berlin 0      
Jan-99 Cologne 0      
Oct-99 Tampere 0      
Dez-99 Helsinki 0      
Mar-00 Lisbon 1 1    
Jun-00 Feira 0      
Oct-00 Biaritz 0      
Dec-00 Nice 2 1 1  
Mar-01 Stockholm 1      
Jun-01 Goeteborg 0      
Oct-01 Ghent 0      
Dec-01 Laeken 0      
Mar-02 Barcelona 4 1 2  
Jun-02 Seville 0      
Oct-02 Brussels 0      
Dec-02 Copenhagen 0      
Mar-03 Brussels 1   1  
Jun-03 Thessaloniki 0      
Oct-03 Brussels 0      
Dec-03 Brussels 0      
Mar-04 Brussels 0      
Jun-04 Brussels 0      
Nov-04 Brussels 0      
Dec-04 Brussels 0      
Mar-05 Brussels 2   1  
Jun-05 Brussels 0      
Dec-05 Brussels 0      
Mar-06 Brussels 3 2 1 1
Jun-06 Brussels 0      
Dec-06 Brussels 0      
Mar-07 Brussels 0      
Jun-07 Brussels 0      
Dec-07 Brussels 0      
Mar-08 Brussels 1   1  
Jun-08 Brussels 0      
Oct-08 Brussels 0      
  Total 17 6 8 1

 

Table 4: Frequency distribution of the childcare related policy frames in the studied documents

Year Document type Topic Nr of references
      Total F1 F2 F3
1986 Council Resolution Equal opportunities 1 1    
1988 Council Resolution Workforce participation of women 1 1    
1992 Council Recommendation Childcare 15 6    
1994 Council Resolution Workforce participation of women 2 2    
1995 Council Decision Equal opportunities 1      
1996 Council Recommendation Equal opportunities 2 1 1  
1997 Presidency Conclusions Luxembourg European Council 1   1  
1998 Commission Recommendation Home work 1 1    
1998 Council Recommendation BEPG 1      
1998 Commission Special Report Equal opportunities via ESF 5 1    
1998 Presidency Conclusions Cardiff European Council 1 1    
1998 Council Resolution EES guidelines 2   1  
1999 Council Recommendation BEPG 2   2  
1999 Commission Structural funds 5 1 1  
1999 Council Resolution EES guidelines 2 1 1  
2000 Council Recommendation EES implem. 2 2 1  
2000 Council Recommendation BEPG 2   2  
2000 Presidency Conclusions Lisbon European Council 1 1    
2000 Council Resolution Balanced sharing of family respons 2 2    
2000 Council Decision EES guidelines 2 1 1  
2000 Presidency Conclusions Nice European Council 2 1 1  
2001 Council Decision Gender Equality 2 1    
2001 Presidency Conclusions Stockholm European Council 1      
2001 Council Recommendation EES implem. 6 3 2  
2001 Council Recommendation BEPG 3 1 1  
2001 Council Decision EES guidelines 2 1 1  
2002 Council Recommendation EES implem. 13 5 3  
2002 Presidency Conclusions Barcelona European Council 4 1 2  
2002 Council Recommendation BEPG 8 1 5  
2002 Council Decision EES guidelines 2 1 1  
2003 Presidency Conclusions Brussels European Council 1   1  
2003 Council Recommendation BEPG 3   3  
2003 Council Decision EES guidelines 5 1 2  
2003 Council Recommendation EES implem. 12 3 5  
2004 Council Recommendation EES implem. 11 1 10  
2004 Council Decision EES guidelines 5 1 2  
2005 Presidency Conclusions Brussels European Council 2   1  
2005 Council Decision EES guidelines 2   1  
2006 Council Conclusions Youth Pact 1 1    
2006 Directive of EP and Council Equal opportunities 1 1    
2006 Presidency Conclusions Brussels European Council 3 2 1 1
2006 Council Decision EES guidelines 2   1  
2006 Council Decision Rural Development 3   1  
2006 Regulation of EP and Council ESF 1   1  
2006 Corrigendum to Council Regulat ESF, ERDF, Cohesion fund 1 1 1  
2006 Council Decision guidelines on cohesion 1 1    
2007 Council Conclusions Alliance for Families 9 1 2  
2007 Council Recommendation BEPG and EES impl. + update 9 1 3  
2007 Council Decision EES guidelines 2   1  
2008 Council Recommendation BEPG and EES impl. + update 10 1 5  
2008 Presidency Conclusions Brussels European Council 1   1  
2008 Council Decision EES guidelines 3   2  
  Total:   182 52 71 1

 

Figure 1: Frequency distribution by policy frame (dynamics of interplay between F1 and F2)

Figure1: Frequency distribution by policy frame (dynamics of interplay between F1 and F2)

 

Figure 2: Three periods in the 'career' of the childcare solution at the EU level of governance

Figure2:  Three periods in the 'career' of the childcare solution at the EU level of governance
©2009 by Elissaveta Radulova
European Integration online Papers (EIoP), Special Issue 1, Vol. 13 (2009), Art. 13
http://eiop.or.at/eiop/texte/2009-013a.htm