European Research Papers Archive

Help for full text search


Instead of (or parallel to) searching in the particular fields (title, author, publication date, keywords) you may also chose to search the ERPA full text database.

General rules

The input is one or more words or (a) group(s) of letters and the operators and signs given below.

Allowed characters are a-z, A-Z, 0-9, " " (space, blank), "-" (minus), "." (period) and ":" (colon); as well as the special characters listed here.
Note: If the input consists of more than one word or group of letters and includes neither an operator (OR, AND, NOT) nor brackets nor inverted commas, the search-engine sets by default an "OR" inbetween the words.

The ERPA search-engine allows you to formulate sophisticated search queries in this input field:

The following operators are allowed:

AND
means that the word (search string) following this operator has to be contained in the full text of the paper;
OR
means that the word (search string) following this operator may alternatively be contained in the full text of the paper;
NOT
means that the word (search string) following this operator must not be contained in the full text of the paper.

Further important signs to be used in the full text search:

( )
standard (round) brackets around an expression relate an operator to the whole expression within the brackets (Remember your basic knowledge in maths!);
"  "
inverted commas are used to embrace a group of words which should be treated as one expression;
*
is the truncation mark for one or more strings (letters or digits);
?
is the truncation mark for one and only one string (letter or digit).
See here for more on truncation!

Note: The full text search mode uses stopwords. This means that words contained in the list of stopwords are ignored by the search-engine.


Examples:

:
searches for all papers whose full text contains either the word "Germany"
or the word "France";

:
searches for all papers whose full text contains both the word "Germany"
and the word "France";

:
searches for all papers whose full text does not contain the "Germany";

:
searches for all papers whose full text does not contain the word "Germany"
or does not contain the word "France";

:
searches for all papers whose full text does not contain the words "Germany"
and "France" at the same time;

:
searches for papers which contain the word "transport" but not the word
"Germany";

:
searches for all papers whose full text contains the words "European Council"
in exactly this word order, i.e. with a blank inbetween;

is the same as ;

:
will produce an error message and should better read:
.

Note that the search-engine also allows for highly complex queries such as ,
but we do not recommend such queries since it will take a long time for you
to get the answer... ;-)

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